General Manuals About Stormwater and Urban Runoff

The manuals in this section are not specific to stormwater program funding.  However, they usually include useful basic information about the creation of a stormwater utility and other funding options.  These references are usually technical manuals about stormwater and urban runoff that focus more on control methods than financing issues. 

American Public Works Association.  (1981).  Urban Stormwater Management Special Report No. 49. Chicago, Illinois: Author. (999 KB)

This special report by the American Public Works Association Research Foundation was one of the first manuals published that discussed stormwater utilities.  The manual covers several other important topics concerning stormwater management including the planning process, urban hydrology, stormwater collection systems, stormwater detention systems, and stormwater ordinances.  Chapter 15 discusses stormwater financing options and uses examples from several of the oldest stormwater utility systems in the United States (Boulder, Colorado; Bellevue, Washington; Tacoma, Washington; Aurora, Washington; and Corvallis, Oregon).

American Water Resources Association. (1999).  Human Dimensions of Watershed Management, Monograph Series No. 20

This report is a 200 page Monograph of 19 papers from the Journal of American Water Resources Association. The papers within the Monograph deal with everything from the importance of water resources education to forecasting future land use for the purpose of watershed assessment. The Monograph contains several articles where case studies have been conducted in areas such as Nevada, New York, and Victoria, Australia. Below is a link to the four-page introduction to the Monograph Series.

Introduction to Human Dimensions of Watershed Management.

Center for Watershed Protection. (2001).  The Stormwater Manager's Resource Center.  [Online].  Available:  

This Web site is designed to provide technical information to stormwater professionals and communities searching for information about stormwater management.  The site includes a library of over 600 references and several slide shows that explain stormwater management issues.  One page helps communities design their own stormwater manuals.  The site also includes examples of local ordinances, simple ways to assess a community's stormwater needs, pollution prevention and resource protection techniques. 

Government Finance Research Center. (1980).  Planning for Urban Stormwater Management:  Financial Issues and Options- Draft.  Washington, D.C.: Municipal Finance Officers Association.

This draft guide discusses planning urban stormwater management programs, emphasizing finance options.  The guide focuses on answering questions about who pays, how much they pay, and when they pay.  Project costs estimations are discussed along with a list of issues that should be considered in the design of a stormwater management program.  Several worksheets are provided to help planners estimate revenue requirements, determine costs, and compare alternative financing methods.

Lehner et. al. (1999). Stormwater Strategies:  Community Responses to Runoff Pollution.  Washington, D.C., Natural Resources Defense Council. [Online]. Available: 

 This report discusses strategies used by communities around the country to control urban stormwater runoff.  The report explains the causes and consequences of urban runoff and outlines strategies that have been used by communities in six regions of the United States.  Finally, the report draws on the experiences of the case study communities and makes nine recommendations on how to design and implement a successful stormwater management program.  The report includes a chapter on funding and getting public support for stormwater programs that recommends the use of a dedicated funding source like a stormwater utility.  The finance chapter includes examples of stormwater utility fee structures from around the country and a list of communities around the country with stormwater utility programs.  

Phillips, N.  (1992).  Decisionmaker’s Stormwater Handbook:  A Primer.  Washington, D.C.: Terrene Institute. 

Nancy Phillips of the EPA prepared this handbook for distribution by the Terrene Institute to familiarize decision-makers with urban stormwater runoff issues.  The book discusses what stormwater runoff is, how development impacts water quality, and what best management practices are available to manage stormwater.  The handbook contains sample site plans and a brief discussion of funding mechanisms. A list of other resources concerning stormwater management is included as an appendix.

Texas Statewide Storm Water Quality Task Force.  (1998).  Texas Nonpoint Source Book.  [Online] Available:

The Texas Nonpoint Source Book is a Web site designed to disseminate information about stormwater management to interested professionals.  It contains information about how to set up a stormwater management program, how to assess urban waterways, and BMPs for controlling stormwater.  The funding mechanisms section of the Urban Runoff Management Programs chapter contains a detailed explanation of how to set up a stormwater utility in Texas.  

Watershed Management Institute.  (1997).  Institutional Aspects of Urban Runoff Management:  A Guide for Program Development and Implementation. Ingleside, Maryland: Author. (837 KB)

The Watershed Management Institute prepared this manual for the EPA to provide recommendations to individuals who are responsible for developing and managing urban runoff control programs.  The Institute surveyed thirty-two local, regional, and state government programs and based their recommendations on the experiences of those who were surveyed.  This manual provides valuable contact information in the individual program summaries in Appendix B.  This information would be very useful to communities that wanted to examine several different types of stormwater management programs and financing methods before determining what type of system would be best for their area of concern. 

Watershed Management Institute.  (1997).  Operation, Maintenance, and Management of Stormwater Management. Crawfordsville, Florida. Author. (1,473 KB)

This is a technical manual that focuses on the design, construction, inspection, and maintenance of stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs). The chapter on costs and financing of stormwater programs touches on the benefits of stormwater utilities and discusses some of the requirements for the creation of a successful utility. 

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